In the midst of armed conflict, when civilians face targeted attacks, are trapped in the midst of active fighting, or find themselves cut off from essential aid, what are the options to come to their aid? In response to the increased risks facing civilian populations in several conflict contexts, InterAction and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), facilitated a roundtable discussion to evaluate scenarios including evacuations, safe havens, and no-fly zones. Roundtable participants included policymakers at the State Department, Department of Defense, senior congressional staff, policy advisors at humanitarian agencies, prominent researchers and human rights advocates, UN personnel, and various elements of the U.S. Armed Services. To ground the discussion, the roundtable focused on recent and current experiences in several contexts, including the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Iraq, Libya, and Syria. Participants considered political, legal, and operational questions relevant to proposed scenarios to assist at-risk civilians, resulting in common themes necessary to consider before intervening in today’s complex crises.