This module recognizes the importance of settlements in the provision of humanitarian assistance. It stresses the importance of switching the unit of analysis from the household to the settlement level to have greater effectiveness in the delivery of humanitarian assistance. It argues for a greater understanding of context, disaster impacts, emerging constraints and opportunities, and available resources and capacities. The case studies presented seek to demonstrate that this change in unit of analysis has been particularly useful in urban disaster responses, with Haiti and the Philippines being good recent examples. The module also introduces issues affecting the settlements such as various social, economic, political, and environmental challenges.